In New York City, 123 people have been killed by law enforcement officials since Sean Bell was slain in 2006.
These are just some of the lives that were stopped short due to police encounters. Look at their faces. Read their stories. Know their names. This is just the tip of the iceberg that is police brutality. Even though their lives were taken from us, do not allow them to be forgotten.
They all have faces… They all have names…
The national mobilization begins …. We are asking people all over the world to join us in #Ferguson and help us flood the city with the war cry for #justice4mikebrown and the countless other victims of police brutality … People from all over the world will be joining us !!!
Will the Climate Change March Make a Difference to the Elites Who Run the World?
On Sunday, more than 300,000 people came out for the People’s Climate March in Manhattan. Easily the largest environmental rally in history, the spectacle was a diverse and frenetic show of force, and in that sense was a spectacular success. The lingering question that was hanging over the proceedings still remains, however: Is all of that sound and fury going to make a difference to the global elites meeting across town at the United Nations for the latest Very Important Climate Change Summit on Tuesday?
Led by a procession of indigenous peoples, activists got things started just before 11:30 AM. In addition to your typical flower-adorned hippie types, there were black and Hispanic kids from around the country. The summer of police brutality punctuated by the death of Eric Garner in New York and Michael Brown in Missouri was never far from the surface, their names intermittently chanted by the legions of protesters.
The event was essentially a giant party. Elaborate floats coasted slowly down the street surrounded by activists with signs demanding action and marching bands. Inside the crowd was a smattering of radicals convinced that the environmental movement’s leaders are kidding themselves if they think carbon emissions can be reduced—and global warming’s worst effects averted—without dramatically reshaping the global economy.
A woman called 911 for an ambulance because she was worried that her 43-year-old fiance Jack Lamar Roberson was having complications with his diabetes. Instead, a police car showed up, and the officers walked inside and shot him four times. Roberson was unarmed and had his hands in the air when he was shot. His whole family - including his 8-year-old daughter - saw it happen.
Last year, the same county police force was responsible for the shooting of a 26-year-old unarmed black man. All officers are on administrative leave pending an investigation.
Whay the fucking FUCK???? Just HOW???
Being vegan is not limited to animal rights. Being vegan is about standing up all sentient beings, including humans. This is why vegans cannot buy from brands such as Nike or shop at Primark. Why? Because these places supply from sweatshops.
I’m sure you’re probably wondering what a sweatshop is exactly and what on earth it has to do with veganism. So I’m here to explain it to you. Here are some not-so-fun facts about sweatshops (all sourced of course):
UNITE, the US garment workers union, defines a ”sweatshop” as any factory that does not respect workers’ right to organise an independent union. Global Exchange and other anti-sweatshop movements would add that a sweatshop is any work place that does not pay its workers a Living Wage, that is enough money to live off and support the basic needs of their families.
Workers in sweatshops can be fined on a daily basis. In some sweatshops workers are fined for arriving late, taking too long in the toilet, forgetting to turn lights off and making mistakes. A fine can cost up to two months’ pay: if workers cannot afford to pay fines they are unable to quit their job and are effectively enslaved.
At one Mexican sweatshop, workers are expected to meet a quota of 1,000 pieces a day. That could mean creating 1,000 jeans, 1,000 shoes or 1,000 rugby balls a day, depending on the product a factory produces. For the Mexican workers to meet this quota they would need to create MORE than one piece a minute. This quota is so high that the workers are unable to have a drink or go to the toilet all day.
Over 75% of people working in clothing sweatshops are women. Many are mothers, and the long hours and little pay can often take its toll on their families. Children often see little of their parents, and in many countries can’t be sent to school due to lack of money to afford to pay fees.
In May 2011 a report on Asian sportswear supply chains highlighted how factories supplying multinational sports and garment brands are routinely breaking labour rights laws. Some factories denied workers the legal minimum wage, while others linked the payment of basic wages to unachievable production targets which workers struggled desperately to meet.
More than 300 garment workers were sacked in Cambodia after taking a stand to demand their right to a living wage. According to a recent Cambodian living wage study, garment workers need £60 a month to support their families instead of the £38 the factory was paying them.
In February 1997, 200 Vietnamese sweatshop workers fell ill and were hospitalised by over exposure to acetane, a chemical solvent used in production of McDonalds Happy Meal toys. Despite such incidents the factory reportedly refused to improve its ventilation system for its workers.
Workers at the Yongshen toy factory in China share filthy, overcrowded dormitories infested with bed bugs. Twenty-four workers share each room, sleeping in narrow triple-level metal beds. Twenty-four workers must share a toilet and in the sweltering summer heat must work drenched in their own sweat. The Yongshen factory produces toys for Hasbro and for RC2 the makers of popular Bratz dolls.
Of the total retail cost of a garment, less than 1% is shared between the people who made it in many sweatshops.
It is not uncommon for people who try to fight for better conditions in sweatshops to be persecuted. Trade union leader Anwar Ansari, producing clothes for M&S in India, claims he was kidnapped and brutally beaten on August 25th 2010.
"I am exhausted to death now…. None of us have time to go to toilet or drink water. The supervisors are pressuring and nagging us all the time. We are tired and dirty. We work without stop and we are still reproached by the supervisors.” - Worker making New Balance shoes, in China for the Beijing Olympics.
Many footballs are hand stitched in sweatshops by children who are under paid and over worked. On the World day against Child Labour in 2006 some of these children were given the opportunity to play with these footballs for the first time, as they were taken from the factories they worked in and enrolled in schools set up by the UN.
In 2005 the building of the Spectrum/Shahriyar Sweater factory in Bangladesh collapsed killing 64 workers and injuring 80. These deaths were entirely preventable. The building collapsed as a result of factory owners violating building codes and health and safety regulations.
Foxconn, a major firm responsible for the assembly of Apple products was forced to investigate conditions at one of its Chinese factories following a string of 17 employee suicides.
Trade Unions play a vital role in ensuring workers across the world can achieve a Living wage and decent working conditions. Unions give workers the confidence to say things together that they would be too scared to say on their own. But many factories find ways to prevent their employees forming trade unions.
Workers producing basic teeshirts for Asda In Bangladesh are earning just a quarter of the amount they need to properly feed, clothe and educate their families. ActionAid’s report, Asda: Poverty Guaranteed, says Asda could easily turn this around by paying workers an extra 2p on each £4 t-shirt it buys.
A survey of 10 factories in Bangladesh found that no factory had a regular working week of less than 60 hours, more than half exceeded this and four of the factories were found to have average working weeks of over 80 hours. In the UK a basic working week is 48 hours.
Many sweatshops are monitored by inspectors who are paid by the clothing industry. Often they will call ahead of inspection giving factory owners time to tidy the work floor, get rid of child workers and coach employees about what to say.
Many female factory workers cannot risk becoming pregnant for fear of being fired. Some supervisors treat female workers so severely that they must return to work sooner than two weeks after giving birth or lose their jobs.
On the 25th of February 2010, 21 workers were killed and 50 injured after a fire at a sweater factory in Bangladesh. The fire caused by an electric short circuit quickly spread through the factory fuelled by the inflammable materials stored there. Workers could not escape through the fire exits which were locked and stairways were blocked with materials.
One factory in Leicester was discovered by a Channel 4 Dispatches documentary to be paying workers £2.50 an hour – less half the minimum wage. Many of the employees were in the UK on student visas, working illegally, and had no way of challenging their exploitative conditions.
Violence in sweatshops is sadly a common occurrence. A recent report carried out by the National Labour Committee found that employees at sweatshops producing lingerie for the Victoria’s Secret brand, could be slapped or beaten by supervisors for making minor errors or falling behind on their production goals.
Sometimes simply closing a sweatshop down is not the answer as it forces the workers to seek alternative employment. After US Senator Tom Harkin’s Child Labour Deterrence Act was introduced in the 1990s, an estimated 50,000 children were dismissed from their garment industry jobs in Asia, leaving many to resort to jobs such as stone-crushing, street hustling, and prostitution.
At one British Sweatshop an undercover reporter discovered there was no central heating in some parts of the building and employees were forced to work in freezing cold conditions throughout the winter. The same reporter found herself trapped in the female toilet after boxes stacked in front of the door fell and blocked her exit.
Distressed denim is often created by a process called sand-blasting. Workers fire sand under high pressure at jeans, and this sand breaks down into fine silica sand particles, which workers inhale and this often causes the fatal lung disease Silicosis. In Turkey alone, 47 former sandblasting operators are known to have died as a direct result of sandblasting related Silicosis.
Thousands of people across the world are employed as home workers, producing goods for the UK high street from home. Whilst home working can be a positive choice for some, home workers are often the most exploited workers in the industry. They have precarious employment status, a lack of legal protection and are isolated from fellow workers which makes it difficult for them to become involved in trade unions.
A Social Audit is an inspection of working conditions in factories. A typical audit will involve:
1. a document review: wage sheets, time sheets and personal records are examined.
2. Site Inspection: this is a tour of the factory to check for any health and safety problems and observe the workers.
3. Interviews: managers, supervisors and workers are all interviewed. The best audits also consult the workers trade unions and local labour rights groups.
There are many different sweatshops across the world producing a wide variety products. Some of the worst industries are shoes, clothing, rugs, toys, chocolate, bananas and coffee.
Factory workers in El Salvador, Spain producing products for labels including Adidas, Reebok, Puma and Gap recently won major improvements to their workplace following the release of a negative report on conditions at the factory. Previously sealed doors and windows were opened to improve ventilation and fans have been installed. Workers are now provided with detailed pay stubbs in Spanish detailing the hours they are paid for and noting pay rates and any deductions to pay.
In November 2005 The International Labour Rights Fund filed a lawsuit in the U.S. that charged Coca Cola and its bottling facility in Turkey with torture of Union activists and their families. The International Labour Rights Fund alleged that employees were beaten with clubs, tear gassed, and then jailed in an effort to force the employees to abandon union efforts.
See more here.
Also check out sweatshop free shopping!
DO NOT BOYCOTT SWEATSHOPS
SWEATSHOP WORKERS HAVE SPECIFICALLY REQUESTED THAT THEIR PRODUCE IS NOT BOYCOTTED.
Sweatshops have come far through union action. Boycotting only means that those workers will not have jobs, and will have very little alternative.
Boycotting sweatshops is counterproductive to improving workers’ conditions - other pressure must be applied.
The only thing boycotting sweatshops does is increase the overall cost of basic amenities, therefore sending more people into poverty, while dissolving the working power of the people in sweatshops.
Imagine you work in some shitty restaurant and get paid minimum wage and get no healthcare and can’t afford to look after your kids. Are you gonna go out and ask activists not to visit the restaurant? Nahhh of course you’re not cause then they’ll need less workers and you’re just gonna GET FIRED.
Jesus Christ you people need to learn about economics and boycotting. Ya can’t just boycott entire industries and expect it to improve the living standards of those the industries oppress.
Taking your money out of a business just means you don’t get a say and you can’t enact change. Unless, y’know, EVERYONE takes their money out of the business. Then it shuts down. Then another one takes its place and does exactly the same shit til someone finds them out.
Reblogging for above comment^
this accurately describes my life.
July 30th, 2014
“The war neither began with us nor is it going to end with our lives.”
— Bhagat Singh
On April 13, 1919, in violation of a British colonial ban on meetings or gatherings, peaceful protestors assembled in Punjab, India to object to the recent killing of nearly 30 Indians in a previous protest. Unprovoked and without warning, colonial forces arrived and opened fire on tens of thousands of unarmed, defenseless Indians, mostly Sikhs, indiscriminately killing 379 men, women, and children. An estimated 1,200 were wounded.
The onslaught known today as the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, or the Amritsar massacre to Punjabi natives, is said to have lasted 20 minutes. Yet, despite its brevity, for the move to action it spurred throughout colonial India it remains a seminal event in the fight for Indian independence. One man, 12 year old Bhagat Singh, was especially moved. The massacre planted in Singh’s young mind a longing for the freedom of his people that would propel him forward by any means necessary.
Eventually he would be hung by British colonial authorities for his propensity to fight brutal occupation with every method employed against the Indian people. In the wake of his death, for the majority of the world who does not know or care about the necessity of armed struggle, he has been forgotten. His story, and those like his, has been put on the back-burner while men like Gandhi have been memorialized as the embodiment of what oppressed peoples should do when faced with a conscienceless occupier.
Such is not far from the expectation of Palestinians in the wake of decades of Israeli apartheid and occupation: In one form or another the question has been asked, “Where is Palestinian Gandhi?”
Though, even if ridiculously, it could be speculated as to where Palestinian Gandhi might be — a thought to be revisited later — we ought to ask why anybody would pose this question at all. The reality is asking this question is a sinister method of delegitimizing Palestinian armed resistance and self-defense. It is a tactical ploy to remove the focus from the violence Israel continues to perpetrate against Palestinians in order to place the impetus for peace solely on those suffering most. It is, in its purest form, victim blaming. And it has been incredibly effective.
Gandhi: A Myth to Which We May Not Want to Aspire
“In order for nonviolence to work, your opponent must have a conscience.”
— Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture)
Nonviolence played a significant role in Indian independence, absolutely; but the premise that under the tutelage of Gandhi it was the premier force driving the nation toward liberation is a cherry-picked version of history. It downplays into nothingness the fact that the post-WWII crown could no longer maintain the brute force and financial obligation needed to run a global empire. Indigenous American scholar Ward Churchill in Pacifism as Pathology dismantled the myth that nonviolence effectively acted alone or in a vacuum unto itself:
“…Gandhian success must be viewed in the context of a general decline in British power brought about by two world wars within a thirty-year period. Prior to the decimation of British troop strength and the virtual bankruptcy of the Imperial treasury during World War II, Gandhi’s movement showed little likelihood of forcing England’s abandonment of India. Without the global violence that destroyed the Empire’s ability to forcibly control territories (and passive populations), India might have continued indefinitely in the pattern of minority rule marking the majority of South Africa’s modern history, the first locale in which the Gandhian recipe for liberation struck the reef of reality. Hence, while the Mahatma and his followers were able to remain “pure,” their victory was contingent upon others physically gutting their opponents for them.”
At best Gandhi worship ignores — at worst it erases — the revolutionary actions of people like Bhagat Singh and others who galvanized the resistance movement in colonial India. It removes the context of fear created by armed struggle, a reversal of the fear that underpinned British control of a country where Brits were enormously outnumbered. George Orwell, the famous author of 1984, as a former officer in the Indian police noted:
“Gandhi has been regarded for twenty years by the Government of India as one of its right-hand men… It was always admitted in the most cynical way that Gandhi made it easier for the British to rule India, because his influence was always against taking any action that would make any difference. The reason why Gandhi when in prison is always treated with such lenience, and small concessions sometimes made when he has prolonged one of his fasts to a dangerous extent, is that the British officials are in terror that he may die and be replaced by someone who believes less in “soul force” and more in bombs.”
The material and philosophical reality of nonviolence is one of insufficient means dictating for itself an impossible end. The sectarian nature by which many proponents of Gandhian doctrine preclude or lambaste the use of armed resistance only helps doom a people’s fight for liberation because it effectively counteracts any positive gain they together might achieve. A truly encompassing liberatory praxis must recognize the use of armed resistance as a legitimate and necessary method of achieving liberation. The dismantling of the Gandhi myth is therefore of primary importance in attaining such a praxis.
But what about Gandhi the man himself, his political doctrines aside? Recently feminist writer and activist Arundhati Roy shared her own criticisms of the late nonviolent leader, saying:
“The story of Gandhi that we have been told, is a lie. It is time to unveil a few truths, about a person whose doctrine of nonviolence was based on the acceptance of a most brutal social hierarchy ever known, the caste system. Gandhi believed that a scavenger should always remain a scavenger. Do we really need to name our universities after him?”
There are, of course, more critical views of Gandhi’s personal habits — his methods for testing his resolve for celibacy for instance — but at the core of his legacy lies an irrational, one-sided lore of a man whose message and methods were inadequate, however helpful, and whose moral character was as flawed as anyone else’s. The real reason Gandhi is lauded while revolutionaries like Singh are diminished has more to do with what we do not know and why we are not taught it than with what we think we know.
In other words, if we were taught the truth that armed resistance does bring about significant change, we might be inclined to try it.
Reclaiming Resistance from Israel’s Tactical Propaganda
“Respect existence, or expect resistance.”
Knowing the pitfalls of Gandhi’s character/nonviolence, that in reality his methods could only be successful when buttressed with armed resistance and the bankrupting of Britain’s military and financial prowess, why would anybody ask “Where is Palestinian Gandhi?” Well, it’s pretty simple really: If people buy into the idea that there ought to be a Palestinian Gandhi to do what the myth of Gandhi dictates, then if no Palestinian is successfully doing it the rest of the world can continue to blame Palestinians for Israeli initiated violence instead of holding Israel accountable.
More importantly, if Palestinians deviate from the doctrine of nonviolence and endorse armed resistance, Israel can portray itself as victimized, or at least only retaliating in an “equally” matched conflict. This is tactical propaganda. If looked for, it is openly visible in the current struggle for Palestinian liberation.
Mainstream media has constantly berated fighters in Gaza for using armed resistance in the face of overwhelming occupation. A principle mechanism of this berating has been the method of blaming-both-sides equally, regardless of the lopsided causalities of Israel’s current and past military offensives. Hamas, an entity ironically helped to prominence by Mossad as a counterweight to the PLO, has been dubbed the central objector to proposed ceasefires by Israel, Egypt, and humanitarian agencies despite the fact that Israel has far more frequently been the provocateur. After Hamas does reject any ceasefire terms, the question of Palestinian Gandhi is mouthed ad nauseam.
But there can be no great peace negotiator when every ceasefire calls for the continuation of Palestinian oppression. Such proposals are not negotiations — they are the demands of a wolf clothed in the rhetoric of the sheep to elicit international sympathy. Palestinians know this, and by majority they have claimed acceptance of such a ceasefire would be a condition of living death.
In the film Rang de Basanti,a historical fiction of Bhagat Singh and his comrades’ revolutionary actions, a group of young friends retrace and relive the struggle for Indian independence. In the course of their reenactment they discover the corruption of their own government through the death of a loved one and come to understand Singh’s motivations for armed struggle. When they attempt to nonviolently challenge the corruption that led to their friend’s death, they are met with brutal repression, another of them having been beaten into a coma.
They assassinate the Defense Minister of the Indian government, the man responsible, in response. As the Indian government attributes the assassination to terrorists, effectively martyring a corrupt official, in their last act the group seizes a radio station to finally tell the truth about the corruption they acted against. They, like Singh, willingly die for the people they love.
Whether or not their actions were warranted they did something far too many have not: They realized that in order for nonviolence to work, those trying to kill you have to care about you.
Israel’s Zionist government does not care about Palestinians. The so-called terrorism Israel says it is fighting, in reality, is the armed resistance created by the terrorism it commits. If Israel were really concerned with the alleged “terrorism” of Hamas, its most prudent action would be to immediately cease participating in the terrorizing of Palestinians. Such is the nature of cyclical violence, but by no means is it equivalent when one party has the 6th most powerful military in the world and the backing of United States military power while the other has rocks and homemade rockets.
But this is at the core of asking “Where is Palestinian Gandhi,” to delegitimize Gazan resistance by decoupling the material reality of occupation from the right to self-defense. Jeff Sluka captured it well in National Liberation Movements in Global Context:
“The condemnation of liberation movements for resorting to… armed struggle is almost invariably superficial, hypocritical, judgmental, and unfair and tends strongly to represent another example of the generalized phenomenon of “blaming the victim.” The violence of the situation, the per-existing oppression suffered by those who eventually strike back, is conveniently ignored. The violence of the oppressed is a form of defensive counter-violence to the violence of conquest and oppression. In no armed national liberation movement I know of in history has this not been the case.”
After decades of war on Palestinians, Israel has threaded through itself a clearly defined and widely endorsed, yet often unarticulated, acceptance of violent oppression. It is a fully rationalized phenomenon for its government, with full confidence of Israeli Zionists and their sympathizers abroad, to carry out odious acts of state-sanctioned terrorism against Palestinians. Yet when those murdered, so clearly revealed in the scope of recent events, grow weary enough to fight against occupation, their resistance is totally fetishized, their humanity dehumanized.
As in the lived and cinematic experience of Singh’s life, getting past the Gandhi myth is essential to understanding the material reality of what is happening on the ground in Gaza today. This understanding must lay bare the conditions of occupation, colonization, and apartheid. When we fully grasp this we ought to remember a people’s natural right to armed resistance. Blaming Palestinians for fighting oppression from a racist, Zionist government is outright victim-blaming. It makes us tools of oppression.
If we really must ask “Where is Palestinian Gandhi,” we should realize they likely are buried under the rubble of an Israeli missile.
(Photo Credit: Lucid Strike)
Still and always relevant.
last year i was eating in a fancy, large restaurant when i began to hear a rumble and the distant sound of people chanting ‘potassium, potassium’ and suddenly hundreds of people dressed as bananas flood this restaurant chanting potassium over and over and we were trapped there for a very long time because the bananas would not leave and they were everywhere
i wasn’t joking
ALKDJFLAKJSDFADKJ I’ M CHOKING HELP MEEEEE
Remembering Injured/Killed African-American Victims of Police Brutality
Dymond Milburn, 20-Year-Old African-American Teenager Assaulted By Police Officers When She Was 12, Then Charged With Assault By The Cops That Assaulted Her, & Police Alleged She Was A Prostitute
Three police officers in Texas accused a 12-year-old black girl of being a prostitute, beat and kidnapped her, and none of them ever faced any consequences for their actions.
On August 22, 2006, 12-year-old Dymond Milburn was outside her home flipping a breaker switch to help her family after the electricity went out, when a blue van pulled up and three men exited the vehicle without identifying themselves. The men were cops in plain clothes with the Galveston police and they accused Dymond, who is black, of being a prostitute.
“You’re a prostitute,” an officer declared. “You’re coming with me.”
They then tried to drag Milburn into their van while she scratched and clawed in her struggle to stop them from taking her. She screamed for her father to come to her rescue while the angry officers began beating her in an effort to force her into the van. One of the officers, David Roark, muzzled the girl’s mouth with his hand to silence her.
Hearing her screams, Dymond’s parents arrived on the scene and told officers, “That’s our daughter. She’s twelve.” But Roark didn’t give a damn. “I don’t care if she’s twenty-two, thirty-two, or forty-six,” Roark responded.
Along with Roark, the other officers included Sean Stewart and their Sergeant, Gilbert Gomez. They believed they had the right to take Dymond Milburn away without consulting her parents. Horrified, Dymond’s parents were devastated and powerless as the officers literally kidnapped their daughter before their eyes.
The officers decided to bring Dymond to the hospital for medical attention, and the level of her injuries was devastating. As a result of the brutal beating by police, the little girl suffered a head injury, a throat injury, abrasions on her arms, a sprained wrist, two black eyes, and lacerations as well as spinal injuries. On top of all these physical wounds, Dymond also suffered nightmares and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. In all, her injuries resulted in a hospital bill totaling $8,000.
But police still weren’t done putting Dymond through hell. When she finally returned to school following her release from the hospital, police embarrassed her further by showing up at her school. They arrested her in front of her classmates at Austin Middle School in revenge for putting up a fight. The charges? Assaulting a police officer and resisting arrest.
You read that right. Cops beat the hell out of this girl and they charge HER with assault. Plus she resisted the officers because that’s what we tell our children to do when strangers try to force them into a vehicle against their will.
Milburn and her family had to deal with two mistrials over a period of three years before the District Attorney agreed to stop pursuing the charges. By then, Dymond was 15-years-old and a huge chunk of her childhood was stolen from her. In retaliation, the Milburns filed a civil lawsuit against the officers who changed her life three year earlier. But none of them have been punished and a settlement hasn’t occurred. Basically, all three officers complicit in the kidnapping and beating of the then-12-year-old girl got away with it. Sean Stewart was actually named “Officer of the Year” sometime later and Gomez went on to be promoted prior to becoming a private detective.
Dymond Milburn is 20-years-old now and still hasn’t received justice for what these police officers did to her. She was just a black 12-year-old girl in front of her own home at night, and yet, police accused her of being a prostitute even though she didn’t do anything wrong and officers had no cause to accuse her of anything. In fact, the only reason the officers were around is because they were responding to a call about three white prostitutes allegedly soliciting in the area. However, they attacked a black child who obviously didn’t fit the description instead and accused her of being the prostitute. Remember, we’re talking about a 12-year-old girl who was at her house with her parents. She was an honors student helping around the house. She wasn’t out on the street hooking.
Police brutality against people of color is not just an epidemic today. It’s been around for a long time. And even children aren’t immune from illegal police behavior. If this can happen to one child, it can happen to any child in America. For too long, police have been able to do what they want to the citizens they are supposed to serve and protect with little or no consequences. That needs to change or police behavior never will. [PoliticusUSA]